Belonging to the Allium genus, Ramps has a botanical name of Allium trioccum. They are also known as Wild Leeks.
Site Selection: Ramps grow naturally under a forest canopy of beech, birch, sugar maple, and/or poplar. Other forest trees under which ramps will grow include buckeye, linden (basswood), hickory, and oak. A forested area with any of these trees present provides an ideal location for planting a ramp crop. Areas that host trillium, toothwort, nettle, black cohosh, ginseng, bloodroot, trout lily, bellwort, and mayapple should be suitable for growing ramps. If there is not a wooded area available to grow ramps, a shade structure can be erected over the planting site.
Choose a well-drained site with rich, moist soil high in organic matter. Soil moisture appears to be an important environmental variable influencing seed germination, seedling emergence rate, survival, and growth rate of the plant. Thus, adequate moisture must be maintained throughout all seasons, not just the active growing season.
Keep in mind that the growth period for ramps is limited to only a few weeks in the spring, during which time the plant is dependent on having adequate light, moisture, and nutrients for survival.
Direct Seeding Although ramp seeds can be sown anytime the soil is not frozen, late summer to early fall is usually considered the best time for seeding ramps. Fresh ramp seeds have a dormant, under-developed embryo. The seed requires a warm, moist period to break root dormancy and a subsequent cold period to break shoot dormancy. Some years there is enough warm weather after sowing in late summer or early fall to break root dormancy. The following winter cold breaks shoot dormancy and the plants emerge in spring. If there is not an adequate warm period after sowing, the seed will not germinate until the second spring. Thus, ramp seeds can take 6 to 18 months to germinate. Case in point, in Fletcher, N.C., ramp seeds sown in fall 1999 and spring 2000 all germinated in April 2001. Being able to provide adequate soil moisture and protection from wildlife are other key factors in determining where and when to sow seeds. Production from sowing seeds to root harvest can take 5 to 7 years.
To plant under a forested canopy, rake back the leaves on the forest floor, removing any unwanted weeds, tree sprouts, or roots. If the soil is not naturally high in organic matter, incorporate organic materials such as composted leaves and other decaying plant material from the forest. Loosen the soil and rake to prepare a fine seed bed. Sow seeds thinly on top of the ground pressing them gently into the soil. Cover seeds with several inches of leaves to retain moisture in the soil and to protect the seeds from wildlife. In a field site under artificial shade, add organic matter if needed, till the soil, sow the seeds, and cover with composted leaves or other similar natural materials.
Transplanting September is the best time for transplanting young plants. If bulbs are to be dug for transplanting, once the ground has thawed gently dig the ramps, taking great care not to damage the roots or bulbs. In a prepared planting bed, transplant the bulbs approximately 3 inches deep, and 4 to 6 inches apart, allowing all the roots to be buried and keeping just the very tip of the bulb above the surface. Planting bulbs at the proper depth is important for survival. Transplant leafed-out plants at the same depth they had been growing and space 4 to 6 inches apart. If space is limited, clumps of 4 or 5 plants can be grouped together. Mulch the planting bed with at least 2 to 3 inches of leaf litter.
Mulching Hardwood leaves provide the best mulch for ramps. Poor results have been obtained with pine bark and commercial mulches and they should be avoided until further research is done. The effects of mulching are numerous: decaying organic matter provides essential elements like nitrogen, much needed moisture is retained within the mulched area, and the mulch acts as an insulator to protect the plants in sub-zero temperatures. In addition, mulching helps to suppress weeds as well as protect newly sown seeds and seedlings from wildlife.
Harvesting In native populations, ramps usually form extensive colonies or clumps. Often the bulbs are so densely spaced that other vegetation can hardly penetrate the stands. Methods for harvest include digging the whole patch, harvesting a portion of a patch, or thinning out and harvesting just the largest plants. Do not harvest plants until they have filled the site, have large bulbs, and have flowered. If whole plots are harvested at one time, it is recommended to have enough plots to allow for a 5 to 7 year rotation. That is, to have continuous harvest year after year, harvest only one-fifth or one-seventh of your production area each year. When harvesting a portion of a plot, no more than 15% of the ramps should be removed. If the thinning method is used, great care should be taken not to damage plants that are not harvested. Based on research done on wild populations; harvests should be limited to 5 to 10% of the plants in each plot.
Tools for harvesting ramps vary with the person using them. A ramp "digger" tool can be purchased or made. This hand tool is the size of a hammer, with a long, narrow head similar to a mattock. Other suitable tools include a garden hoe, pick, and soil knife. For commercial operations, having a tool that can be used comfortably all day is essential.
Digging methods are the same as those described under "Transplanting". Again, great care should be taken not to damage the bulbs. While harvesting, keep the dug ramps cool and moist. When harvesting is complete, wash ramps thoroughly, and trim off the rootlets. Pack in waxed cardboard produce boxes and store in a cool place, preferably a walk-in cooler. Do not store in airtight containers.